The Inca empire lasted from 1438 until 1532, when the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizzaro arrived and conquered the empire. The Inca civilization began around the year 1200, but their empire did not begin until Pachacuti set out to bring as many neighboring people under Inca control as possible in 1438.
The Inca empire included large parts of modern Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Chile and Colombia. The capital city was in Cuzco. When Pizzaro arrived in 1532, he captured the Inca's leader, Atahualp, and executed him. The Spaniards also unknowingly brought diseases, such as smallpox, which spread through the Inca villages and caused large numbers of casualties.