Albert Einstein made numerous accomplishments that advanced humanity's thinking about physics, including the Special Theory of Relativity and the General Theory of Relativity, according to the official website of the Nobel Prize. Einstein earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921. The scientist also won the Copley Medal in 1925 and the Franklin Medal in 1935.
Einstein earned his doctorate in 1905 after graduating from Swiss Federal Polytechnic School with a teaching diploma. In 1909, the physicist became "Professor Extraordinary" at the University of Zurich before reaching the directorship of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics at the University of Berlin in 1918, a post he kept until 1932.
After fleeing Germany in 1932, Einstein became a professor at Princeton University in the United States. The scientist was given American citizenship in 1940. The professor was awarded many honorary doctorates in the United States for his lifetime achievements.
In terms of science, Einstein's theories attempted to prove that matter and energy have a special mathematical relationship. He also wanted to improve upon Sir Isaac Newton's physical laws and formulas that describe the universe. Einstein's work created the fields of quantum physics and cosmology. Quantum physics deals with subatomic particles. Cosmology is the study of the origins of the universe.