Julius Caesar was a Roman statesman, writer and general who lived between 100 and 44 B.C. Caesar's victory during the Gallic Wars increased his power to the extent that he was able to take control of the Roman Republic and become dictator.
Caesar's military achievements greatly expanded the limits of the Roman Republic, turning it into an empire that stretched from modern-day Spain to the Middle East. Caesar ruled alongside Pompey for a number of years, but eventually turned against his partner after provocatively crossing the Rubicon River along with his army.
After serving as dictator of the Roman Empire for five years Caesar was finally assassinated in 44 B.C. by a group of conspirators that included his close friend and ally Brutus. The events of Caesar's rule and eventual demise were documented by William Shakespeare in his play "Julius Caesar," written in 1599. Caesar also penned his own works, highlighting his military achievements in Gaul. This work is known as "The Gallic Wars" and was published in 49 B.C.
From the reign of Julius Caesar up until the fall of the German Kaiser in 1918, there was always a political figure in power using the title Caesar or one of its varieties -- a span of almost 2,000 years. Some varieties of this title include the Russian Tsar, Turkish Kayser and the Icelandic Keisari.