While Jose Rizal is considered a national hero by many for his pivotal role in the Philippine Revolution against the Spaniards, there is no official national hero of the Philippines. In 1898, December 30 was declared a national day of mourning for the death of Rizal and others during the revolution.Continue Reading
Born in 1861 in Calabra, Laguna, Jose Rizal studied in the Philippines and in Spain, where he obtained his Licentiate in Medicine as well as a degree in philosophy. He traveled extensively and learned 22 languages.
In March of 1887, the novel Noli Me Tangere was published in Berlin. It was a satirical novel that poked fun at the arrogance of the Spanish clergy who he had been exposed to during his studies. In Paris in 1890, he reprinted an annotated version of an older Philippine work, Morga's Succesos de la Islas Filipinos, to prove that Philippine culture had value even before the arrival of the Spaniards.
El Filibusterismo, his second novel and a sequel to Noli, was published in 1891, further exposing and criticizing both the Spanish clergy and electoral corruption. This led to his persecution by authorities, including a brief incarceration in 1892.
His work became influential in the Philippines, and he was hunted down by authorities and imprisoned a few months after the revolution began in September 1896. He was executed by firing squad on December 30, 1896.Learn more about Modern Asia
Due to his association with the members of Katipunan, Jose Rizal was implicated as one of its founders and was tried for sedition, rebellion and conspiracy before a military court. Rizal was already in the Mediterranean when he was arrested en route and brought back to Manila for trial. He was convicted as guilty of all three charges. He was sentenced to death and was exiled to Dapitan in 1893.Full Answer >
Some criteria used in choosing Rizal as the National Hero of the Philippines were his contribution to the Philippines' fate and standard of living, and his input into creating a life of order and freedom for Philippines. Other criteria used were Rizal's idea for the Philippines as a country and his continuous fight for his country's freedom.Full Answer >
The Third Republic of the Philippines was the period between the recognition of the country's independence in 1946 and the end of Diosdado Macapagal's presidency in 1965. During this period, the country had five administrations.Full Answer >
In contemporary history, physical education in the Philippines developed into the Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports. The nation's Executive Order No. 81 series of 1999 then integrated BPESS into the Philippine Sports Commission, which has since assumed BPESS's departmental roles.Full Answer >