Isaac Newton was a physicist, an astronomer, a mathematician and a natural philosopher who lived in England during the 17th and 18th centuries. Today, many scientists consider him to be one of the most influential scientists in history.
Newton's work "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica," or the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, was published in 1687 and is considered by many to be one of the most influential works in the history of science. In the book, Newton described the three laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation. The book showed that both the movements of celestial bodies and objects on Earth are subject to a single set of natural laws. This helped to advance the scientific revolution and removed any remaining doubts about heliocentrism.
Newton's work in mathematics helped create differential and integral calculus. He also helped to advance the field of optics by inventing the reflecting telescope and developing a theory of color based on his observation of white light splitting into a visible spectrum when it passes through a prism.
Newton was also a highly religious person, although his beliefs were not orthodox. While his scientific achievements are what he is remembered for today, he produced more work on Biblical hermeneutics than he did on natural science.