Machines invented for the textile industry include the flying shuttle, the spinning Jenny, the carding engine, and the power loom. In addition, Eli Whitney's cotton gin proved essential for large-scale cotton processing and textile creation.
The industrial revolution spurred a cascade of inventions used by the textile industry. In 1764, Richard Arkwright invented the water frame, the first powered spinning machine. Arkwright also constructed the first textile factory powered by steam in 1790. The increasing development of textile machinery drastically increased the production of cloth, and raised demand for raw cotton to new highs. The Cotton Gin, invented by Eli Whitney in 1792, mechanized the previously tedious process of separating cotton fiber from its seeds. The simplicity and efficiency of Whitney's invention allowed for increased production of short-staple cotton that could be grown in a wider range of geographic areas, especially in the American South. This expansion of the cotton-based agricultural system is often credited with the re-entrenchment of slavery in the Southern states. Joseph Marie Jacquard is credited with revolutionizing the mechanization of detailed weaving with the 1804 invention of a loom that used holes in a set of cards to create consistent, easily reproducible patterns. The first synthetic dye for use in the textile industry was created by William Perkin in 1856.