Members of the Jewish religion invented school, although the concept of formal education dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. The development of complex societies in ancient Egypt and the region of Babylonia brought the arrival of more complex information and the need to communicate that information. Ancient Middle Eastern Jews established the first elementary schools, seeing the need for education of children.
Although the Jews initially established formal schools, many other groups and societies followed suit. Ancient Egyptians established buildings where citizens could learn basic skills, such as reading, writing and arithmetic. In ancient times, memorization was the primary method of education and was often accompanied by physical reprimands.