The fire extinguisher was invented by George William Manby in 1818. It was a simple device that used a copper cylinder and compressed air to push large amounts of water through the nozzle of the cylinder.
In 1872, Thomas J. Martin improved upon the fire extinguisher developed by George Manby. The modern fire extinguisher uses a chemical foam that is stored in the cylinder and propelled by nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The chemical-foam fire extinguisher was invented by a Russian named Aleksandr Loran in 1904.
The two variants of the modern fire extinguisher are the stored-pressure and cartridge-operated fire extinguishers.