Rene Descartes is responsible for inventing the Cartesian coordinate system. Descartes is also responsible for inventing the field of analytical geometry.
The Cartesian coordinate system uses a numerical coordinate pair to specify the points on a plane. The coordinate axis is each reference line and the origin is where each of these meet. People use this every day to determine where they are on a map or to find a specific point on a graph. There is a vertical Y Axis and a horizontal X Axis and those using this system look for the intersection point, or the zero point, to find a specific location.