Hatshepsut Ma'at-ka-Ra ruled ancient Egypt during the 18th dynasty as the first female pharaoh. Her 20-year reign was the longest of any female king in ancient Egypt.
Hatshepsut means "foremost of noble women," while Ma'at translates to "order or balance," and ka-Ra means "the spirit of the sun god Ra." Hatshepsut married her half-brother, Thutmose II, after her father died when she was 12 years old. When her husband died, she became the regent for the infant Thutmose III, Thutmose's heir by a concubine. Hatshepsut, for unknown reasons, claimed power and declared herself pharaoh. She often dressed in male garb, and art from the time depicts her as a man with a beard. Egypt was prosperous under Hatshepsut, who built many obelisks and the Djeser-djeseru, a temple whose name means "holiest of holy places."