The Industrial Revolution occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries across Europe and America. It was precipitated when the use of engine-powered machines and other industrial features began to transform mostly rural and agrarian areas into densely populated urban centers. One major shift that took place was that manufacturing of things, such as tools, furniture and bullets, moved from primarily home-based processes to centralized industrial production.
The Industrial Revolution was a period of innovation that reached far beyond the agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Advances were also made in the areas of banking, communication and transportation, most notably with the advent of the train and bicycle. However, this period of industrial development was also accompanied by huge class stratification, with lower class workers subjected to horrible working conditions.