The Renaissance occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries, highlighted by several important events such as the death of Petrarch in 1374, the Papacy's move to Rome in 1420, the birth of Leonardo da Vinci in 1452, the end of the Hundred Years War one year later and the rule of Lorenzo de Medici in Florence in 1469. Other important events are the creation of artworks such as "Morte d'Arthur" in 1470 and the "Last Supper" in 1498.
Several important political, intellectual, artistic and cultural events characterized the Italian Renaissance, creating a social enlightenment or awakening. Although the exact beginning is still under debate, many historians believe that the Italian Renaissance came about in part due to the Black Death in 1347. So many people died that the survivors had greater wealth, resources and societal mobility. Another cause was Petrarch, a poet who brought ancient texts to light.
One of the first great events of the Renaissance was the rediscovery of Ptolemy's "Geographer," a treatise on astronomy and geography adopted as truth for the next several centuries. Van Eyck produced "The Adoration of the Lamb" in 1432, Bellini painted "The Agony in the Garden" in 1465, and Malory wrote "Morte d'Arthur" in 1470. Meanwhile, Lorenzo de Medici ruled Florence and the printing of the Gutenberg Bible occurred in 1454.
Leonardo da Vinci, born in 1452, painted the iconic "Last Supper" in 1498 and the "Mona Lisa" in 1505. Michelangelo sculpted "David" in 1504 and painted the roof of the Sistine Chapel in 1408. Machiavelli wrote "The Prince" in 1513, and Erasmus wrote "Utopia" in 1516. Copernicus wrote about astronomy in 1543, and Shakespeare wrote a number of plays between 1564 and 1616.