Scotland has been occupied by humans for more than 10,000 years, and the record of Scottish history began when the Romans conquered the area in the first century. The Vikings arrived around 800 A.D., and the area has been under English influence since the 13th century.Continue Reading
The earliest known inhabitants of Scotland were the Neolithic people around 10,000 B.C. The early Scots fished and hunted in the area and eventually set up permanent residence.
In the first century A.D., the Roman Empire expanded into Scotland. The new Roman Governor, Gnaeus Julius Agricola, arrived in Britain in 78 A.D. He started a series of major incursions against the native people but was never able to fully defeat the Caledonians and Picts.
Around the year 800 A.D., Viking settlers from Norway and Denmark began to migrate to Scotland. The Norsemen settled western Scotland while the Picts, a native tribe, began to solidify their new Kingdom of Alba.
The Battle of Stirling Bridge and the death of King Alexander III in the 13th century triggered English control of Scotland. England invaded Scotland in 1296 and has maintained control for more than 700 years as of 2015. In 1999, the Scottish parliament convened and voted to put Scotland on the path towards independence.Learn more about Modern Europe