Armenia's recorded history covers 3,500 years and includes Ancient Armenia, the Artashisian dynasty, the Arshakunian dynasty, the Arab invasion and the Byzantine Empire. Armenia restored its independence on September 21, 1991.
The Hayasa-Azzi people are the ancestors of modern Armenians. They were part of the Nairi tribal union until the 13th century B.C. The Kingdom of Ararat was the first significant country in Armenia, and the country has been ruled by Turks, Mongols, Egyptians and Byzantines during its history.
The Russian Empire took Armenia from Persia in 1828, and the Ottoman Empire ruled the area. The Russo-Turkish War in 1877 and 1878 created the "Armenian Question," which was to annihilate all Armenians living in the area. The Young Turks executed hundreds of Armenians on April 24, 1915. The Russian Empire ruled Armenia for 71 years.
Reunification of Armenia began in February 1988, and the Armenian Independence Referendum passed on September 21, 1991. The country elected Levon Ter-Petrosyan as its first president on October 17, 1991, and he had overwhelming popular support from the country's residents. The military's first major victory was the Capture of Susha on May 8, 1992, when Armenians captured the mountain town of Shusha and drove out the Azeris. On January 12, 2015, Russian serviceman Valery Permyakov murdered seven members of the Avetisyan family in the Gyumri massacre.