According to Biography.com, Frederick the Great was called an enlightened despot because his mother raised him with the values and education of the Enlightenment, and as ruler of Prussia, he sought to instill these values in government and society. His enlightened reforms included religious toleration, partial freedom of the press and reformations of the military and justice systems.Continue Reading
During Frederick's childhood, his mother hired tutors who taught him French culture, poetry and Roman and Greek classical literature. However, his father insisted he study military and political matters. At one point, when Frederick and a friend ran away from his father's strict regime, his father had his friend beheaded and forced Frederick to watch. When his father died, Frederick became both a military genius and a patron of Enlightenment ideals. As part of his revamping of the justice system, Frederick forbade torture and established Prussia's first criminal code. To strengthen the economy, he lowered internal duties, imposed protective tariffs and stimulated trade by building canals.
Frederick also became known as a patron of the sciences and the arts. He was a talented musician himself, and even wrote flute sonatas. At one point he corresponded with Voltaire, one of the intellectual leaders of the Enlightenment. He encouraged the Berlin Academy in its scientific work and commissioned architects to build elaborate structures with the aim of establishing Berlin as a cultural capital.Learn more about Modern Europe
Peter the Great reorganized the Russian Tsarist government by modernizing it and modeling it after European examples. He opened up the traditionally conservative Romanov government to new and innovative types of administration.Full Answer >
Peter the Great was the czar of Russia from 1682 to 1725, according to A&E's Biography, and he was responsible for reforming Russia, bringing it into the modern age and setting the stage for Russia to become a world power. Previously, Russia remained isolated from the West and missed out on many of the societal gains that resulted from the Renaissance, a problem Peter corrected during his rule.Full Answer >
Alexander III, known historically as Alexander the Great, was the undefeated ruler of Macedon who quelled uprisings in Thebes, Athens and Thessaly upon his father's death and conquered Persia, Anatolia, Syria, Phoenicia, Judea, Gaza, Egypt, Bactria and Mesopotamia. During his reign, he expanded the boundaries of his empire as far as Punjab, India.Full Answer >
The advantage of a theocracy is that all members of the society theoretically share a set of common values and traditions and are compelled to obey the chief ruler, who is considered immortal and infallible. This helps ensure a cohesive society. The disadvantages include a susceptibility to abuse by unscrupulous persons and the marginalization or persecution of people who don't share the faith.Full Answer >