The countries and empires that fought in World War I included the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria. Other powers were Greece, Italy, Japan, Montenegro, Portugal Romania, Russia and Serbia. The United States entered the war on April 6, 1917. Among the well-known soldiers who fought in World War I were the writer J.R.R. Tolkien, the poet Wilfred Owen and Fergus Bowes-Lyon.
Fergus Bowes-Lyon (1889-1915) was the older brother of Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, who would later become the Queen Mother; this made him the uncle of Queen Elizabeth II. Bowes-Lyon served in the 8th Battalion of the Black Watch and was killed during the Battle of Loos. At the time, he was married and the father of an infant daughter.
J.R.R. Tolkien (1892-1973) served with the Lancashire Fusiliers before he was transferred to the British Expeditionary Force and sent to the Somme. After seeing action, he came down with trench fever. His illness allowed him to be returned to Great Britain. Soon after, nearly everyone in his battalion was killed.
Wilfred Owen (1893-1918) is renowned for being one of the "trench poets" who wrote about the war. All of his poems were written over the course of a year, and he was killed just weeks before the Armistice.