Aqueducts have been used by numerous civilizations, such as the Persians and Egyptians, but no specific structure is designated as the first aqueduct. The Assyrians had one of the first documented aqueducts in the world, which was built around 691 B.C. The most famous and well known structures of this kind are the ones built by the Romans.
Romans needed the aqueducts to support their large cities. Without these waterways, many of the cities would not have existed at all. The Romans built cities in areas that had no access to water, which meant that a system of transport needed to be designed in order to inhabit the area. They would find a water source in the mountains or other area and build aqueducts to carry the water to the cities. There would have been no Roman baths, no fountains and no cities without aqueducts.
The aqueducts used by older civilizations were focused mainly on irrigating fields and helping crops. Ancient Rome is well known as a bath culture and for being extremely clean, so its way of life required ample disposable water. Roman culture would have been totally different and stagnant without a water transport system in place.