Ancient Mesopotamian farmers used basic farming tools, such as a plow and sickle. The first Mesopotamian farmers began cultivating crops around 6,000 B.C. using a simple stone plow that was pulled by oxen. The stone plow was typically attached to a shaft made of wood.
The first stone plows used in Mesopotamia are referred to as beam-ards and created a furrow in the soil without causing it to turn. This design stayed constant for most of the Mesopotamian civilization and it was not until 2,300 B.C. that the seed plow was invented. The seed plow featured a similar design to the beam-ard but included a funnel that dropped a seed into the furrow.
Farming tools in Ancient Mesopotamia were made using materials such as clay, timber and stone. The quality of the tools improved for workers on temple estates and palaces with the introduction of copper-alloy and iron tools.
The farming period in Mesopotamia began in late October and early November with the plowing and planting of seeds in the fields. Harvest would occur during the period between late April and June. Common crops in the region included peas, beans and lentils. Other vegetables and fruits were also grown, including apples, figs, pomegranates and onions.