Some of the most famous scientific theories include the theory of heliocentrism, the theory of evolution by natural selection, the quantum theory, the theory of general relativity and the theory of special relativity. Plate tectonics theory, statistical mechanics and the oxygen theory of combustion are also quite famous.
The theory of heliocentrism was posited by Copernicus in 1543. Essentially, Copernicus believed that the earth revolved around the sun. The idea was conceived by ancient Greek thinkers, but it took nearly 2,000 years for Copernicus to put their initial thoughts into a theory.
Charles Darwin's 1859 theory of evolution by natural selection holds that life evolved instead of being created. His theory cast supernatural creation aside and paved the way for scientific thoughts on man's beginnings.
Quantum theory was developed by Albert Einstein with Max Planck, Erwin Schrodinger, Werner Heisenberg, Paul Dirac and Max Drake. This theory, which was developed from 1900 through 1926, slashed holes in classic physics theories and addressed the ordinary notions of nature.
Einstein's theory of general relativity was created in 1915. It provided the means for ideas about black holes and an expanding universe. Einstein's special relativity theory of 1905 formed the basis for what is known about matter and energy and was the reason that the atomic bomb was made possible.