The nomadic Plains Indian tribes used teepees. Plains Indians is a blanket term that includes a number of individual tribes, including Pawnee, Omaha, Plains Apache and Lakota, among many others. Another style of mobile housing is called a wigwam.
Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) was a president of South Africa and a Nobel Peace Prize recipient. In South Africa, he is often called "Madiba," which was the name of the clan he was born into.
Apartheid is a form of racial segregation that has its roots in South Africa. Under this system of segregation, South Africans were divided into groups of whites and nonwhites. Apartheid was introduced in 1948 under the governance of the National Party, which was a system of government run by all-white officials.
Sigmund Freud, the creator of psychoanalysis, was one of the first doctors to research and write about the unconscious mind and repressed memories. Freud believed that psychological problems could manifest as physical symptoms.
Ethiopia and Liberia were the only two African countries that were not colonized. Liberia was founded by freed slaves and Ethiopia resisted Italian attempts at colonization.
Official reports vary, but the consensus is that there were between 2,200 and 2,340 passengers and crew members on board the Titanic when it sank. Of that number, 885 were crew members.
Corn formed a majority of the colonial diet. Other native crops included pumpkins, squash and beans. European wheat, barley, oats and peas were also grown. In addition to the large-field crops, family gardens in the colonies contained herbs and vegetables, such as lettuce, parsley, carrots, spinach and turnips. In northern colonies farming produced less than in the southern New England colonies because of a shorter growing season and poor soil.
The father of modern plastic surgery is Dr. Harold Gillies, but his career started far from the glitz and glamour of Hollywood. He pioneered his techniques in 1917 while serving in the First World War. Tasked with repairing soldiers' wartime injuries, Dr. Gillies's operations helped to counteract the gruesome injuries of shrapnel and trench warfare.
The city of Timbuktu is best known for its trade in gold, salt and superior schools. Some people even called it the “Golden City” for this reason. Between the 13th and 17th centuries, Timbuktu was the center of learning in the Islamic world. This occurred due to the financial boom in growth in the city during the 13th and 14th centuries.
Nigeria does not have a single king, as it has a federal system of government. All kings were stripped of their power in 1963. As of 2014, the president of Nigeria is Goodluck Jonathan, whom has held office since 2011.
Transportation in the early 1800s was primarily by horse and sail, but the development and refinement of the steam engine spurred the development of rail and river transportation. Horses and horse-drawn conveyances remained the primary method of transportation through most of the century, at least for local travel. Toward the end of the 1800s, the automobile came into existence, although most 19th-century designs saw very limited adoption.
Albert Einstein had an IQ of 160. This is the same IQ level as Stephen Hawking. Einstein was born in Germany on March 14, 1879.
George Washington became a hero due to his role as commander in chief of the Continental Army. Congress assigned him this position in 1775, and his leadership helped the army defeat the British in the American Revolution.
Nelson Mandela fought to end apartheid, which divided people in South Africans based on race. After his release from prison, he sought reconciliation. He is credited with helping South Africa move past its unjust history.
Prince Phillip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh, is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II. Prince Phillip was born on the island of Corfu in Greece. The two met in 1934 at the wedding of a Greek princess.
The attempted secession of the southeastern provinces of Nigeria was the cause of the Nigerian Civil War. Another name for this conflict is the Biafran War because those provinces named themselves the Republic of Biafra.
Astronauts have landed on the moon six times. In addition to the moon landings, NASA has sent astronauts on missions to flyby or orbit the moon three times.
The first color TV went on sale in the summer of 1950. The first color broadcast for this television, however, was not until June of 1951.
In his 1967 "Steeler Lecture," Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. said, "In the end, we will remember not the words of our enemies, but the silence of our friends." The "Steeler Lecture" was one of five sermons published in a book called "Conscience for Change," republished as "The Trumpet of Conscience" after King's death.
The Cold War helped drive the space race from both sides seeking political and technological advantage over the other. Neither country wanted to be seen as coming in second place in scientific exploration, and both sides were keenly aware of the potential intelligence and strategic advantages space dominance could provide.
Nelson Mandela was incarcerated for 27 years as a result of his efforts to bring racial harmony and equality to South Africa. He began his efforts as soon as he graduated from law school and founded the first black law firm in the country in 1952. As unrest spread in the 1950s and 1960s, Mandela found himself the target of law enforcement efforts, and after he secretly left South Africa to gain aid and training for the struggle, he was picked up and jailed until Feb. 11, 1990.
South Africa gained its independence from Great Britain in 1934, though the African National Congress, which was formed 22 years prior to South Africa gaining its independence, did not gain power until 1994.