Modern Europe

A:

Winston Churchill owned brown miniature poodles. These poodles were named Rufus and Rufus II, but Churchill insisted that "the II is silent" in the second poodle's name.

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  • How did Napoleon change France?

    Q: How did Napoleon change France?

    A: Napoleon changed France by creating the Napoleonic Code, negotiating a long-term agreement with the Roman Catholic Church and reforming the tax and education systems. Though Napoleon's reign ended in 1815, his reforms lasted well beyond his time in office.
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  • What is Queen Elizabeth I famous for?

    Q: What is Queen Elizabeth I famous for?

    A: Elizabeth Tudor was queen of England for 45 years, and her reign is referred to as the Elizabethan era or the Golden Age of England. When she first ascended to the throne, Elizabeth inherited a bankrupt nation, torn by religious strife and threatened by the military power of France and Spain. By her death on March 24, 1603, England had become a major world power in every respect.
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  • How did Great Britain enforce the payment of taxes?

    Q: How did Great Britain enforce the payment of taxes?

    A: The most significant action Great Britain took to enforce taxes on colonists was the enactment of the Stamp Act in 1765, which imposed a tax on all paper documents. Through this act, colonists were forced to pay for a stamp that made the documents legal. Until the Stamp Act, Great Britain did little to enforce the payment of taxes.
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  • What do the colours on the Union Jack represent?

    Q: What do the colours on the Union Jack represent?

    A: On the British Union Jack flag, white represents peace and honesty; red represents hardiness, bravery, strength and valor; and blue represents vigilance, truth, loyalty, perseverance and justice. The term "Union Jack" refers to the flag being a union between three national flags. A "jack" is a small flag flown on a ship's bowsprit, which was the first place the Union Jack was commonly displayed.
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  • Why are there gargoyles in the Notre Dame cathedral?

    Q: Why are there gargoyles in the Notre Dame cathedral?

    A: The gargoyles on Notre Dame cathedral were built as water spouts to prevent damage to the masonry by deflecting rainwater from the sides of the building. After the installation of drain pipes in the 16th century, the gargoyles were merely ornamental.
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  • Where did Shakespeare go to school?

    Q: Where did Shakespeare go to school?

    A: Though much mystery surrounds the life of William Shakespeare, it is believed by many historians that he likely attended grammar school near his home in Stratford, at the King's New School. No records of other schools he may have attended or degrees of higher education have been discovered.
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  • What countries made up the Triple Entente?

    Q: What countries made up the Triple Entente?

    A: The Triple Entente consisted of Great Britain, France and Russia. It was formed through a variety of different diplomatic agreements and treaties between the three countries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and helped smooth over previous rivalries the three countries had with one another. The Triple Entente stood as a counterbalance to the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
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  • How did Napoleon come to dominate most of Europe?

    Q: How did Napoleon come to dominate most of Europe?

    A: Napoleon conquered most of Europe with an array of insightful tactics. He used military strength, political maneuvering, forced alliances, annexation and idealism to bring large swathes of Europe under his control.
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  • From where did the Titanic set sail?

    Q: From where did the Titanic set sail?

    A: The Titanic set sail for New York from the White Star Dock in Southampton, England, on April 10, 1912. Most of her crew also came from or lived in the area.
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  • What is East Prussia called now?

    Q: What is East Prussia called now?

    A: In 1945, East Prussia was dissolved, and the lands were distributed among Poland, Russia and Lithuania. As such, there is no single name that refers to the former province as a whole.
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  • Why is the Eiffel Tower famous?

    Q: Why is the Eiffel Tower famous?

    A: The Eiffel Tower is famous because it was the tallest structure in the world at the time of its construction in 1889. It has since become a Paris icon and a symbol of romance. More people pay to see the Eiffel Tower each year than any other attraction in the world.
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  • How much did it cost to build the Titanic?

    Q: How much did it cost to build the Titanic?

    A: In 1912, the cost to build the Titanic was $7.5 million. In today's economy, that is equivalent to a cost of $400 million. Construction of the Titanic began March 31, 1909.
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  • What is Prussia called today?

    Q: What is Prussia called today?

    A: Prussia, which was once the main state of the German Empire, is now referred to as the Republic of Germany, with its last-known capital as Berlin and having originated in Brandenburg. It became a substantial European power in 1740 under the leadership of Frederick II of Prussia, who ruled until 1786.
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  • What breed of dog did Winston Churchill own?

    Q: What breed of dog did Winston Churchill own?

    A: Winston Churchill owned brown miniature poodles. These poodles were named Rufus and Rufus II, but Churchill insisted that "the II is silent" in the second poodle's name.
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  • What kind of work did Albert Einstein do?

    Q: What kind of work did Albert Einstein do?

    A: According to About.com, Albert Einstein started out working as a technical assistant examiner at the Swiss Patent Office in 1902. After his received his doctorate in 1905 and had several articles published, he began to rise as the scientist he is known as today. Starting in 1909, he accepted teaching positions at the University of Zurich, University of Prague and later the University of Berlin.
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  • What role did Leon Trotsky play in the Russian Revolution?

    Q: What role did Leon Trotsky play in the Russian Revolution?

    A: In Vladimir Lenin's government in the Russian Revolution, Leon Trotsky first played the role of Commissar for Foreign Affairs and then the leader of the Red Army. In the Bolshevik government, he was second only to Lenin and seemed destined to succeed him until Joseph Stalin outmaneuvered him politically and banished him from the Soviet Union.
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  • Who was Peter the Great, and what did he do?

    Q: Who was Peter the Great, and what did he do?

    A: Peter the Great was the czar of Russia from 1682 to 1725, according to A&E's Biography, and he was responsible for reforming Russia, bringing it into the modern age and setting the stage for Russia to become a world power. Previously, Russia remained isolated from the West and missed out on many of the societal gains that resulted from the Renaissance, a problem Peter corrected during his rule.
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  • What caused the Yugoslavian Civil War?

    Q: What caused the Yugoslavian Civil War?

    A: The Yugoslavian Civil War occurred because the country was initially created as a federation of diverse ethnic states, and once central government was no longer strong enough to keep them all together, the patchwork nation began to fall apart. In 1990, Slovenia, Croatia and Macedonia agitated for independence, but Yugoslavian president Slobodan Milosevic refused to address their demands. When Slovenia declared independence, Serbian forces moved in and initiated the war.
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  • Who were the conquistadors?

    Q: Who were the conquistadors?

    A: The conquistadors were soldiers and explorers from the Portuguese or Spanish Empire that sought out the new world during the Age of Discovery, which began around the 15th century. They were notorious for their use of violence and political manipulation to subdue other cultures and aid in their own exploration.
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  • What was the purpose of the Magna Carta?

    Q: What was the purpose of the Magna Carta?

    A: The purpose of the Magna Carta was to guarantee land owners and English gentry that they would not be unfairly taxed. The complaints that lead to the Magna Carta were not dissimilar from those that prompted the American Revolution.
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  • What are some of the problems facing Europe today?

    Q: What are some of the problems facing Europe today?

    A: As Europe approaches the second half of the 21st-century's second decade, it faces pressing issues of anti-EU sentiment, sluggish economic growth and high unemployment. While many are calling for a greater degree of integration between the European Union's member-states, growing concerns regarding the region's struggling businesses and sluggish GDP growth are giving rise to Euroscepticism, or a lack of faith in the EU's ability to bring about significant improvements. According to a report released in October of 2013 by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 120 million Europeans were at risk of falling into poverty.
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