Mesopotamia

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One of the major inventions of the Sumerian Mesopotamians was the invention of writing. The oldest known wheel ever found by archaeologists is Mesopotamian, and they also made advancements in mathematics and astronomy.

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  • Who are the Gentiles?

    Q: Who are the Gentiles?

    A: The term "gentile" refers to someone who is not Jewish. Traditionally, this term only referred to Christians. Non-Christians from non-Western cultures were not typically labelled with this term. The Church of Latter-Day Saints, commonly known as the Mormon church, adopted this term to refer to non-Mormon people.
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  • Which technological advances were credited to the Assyrians?

    Q: Which technological advances were credited to the Assyrians?

    A: The technological advances that were credited to the Assyrians include extended irrigation systems, improvements to bronze casting, better equipment for fetching water from wells, improvements in military technology and street restorations. Many of these innovations were brought about during the rule of Sennacherib.
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  • Who is Hammurabi?

    Q: Who is Hammurabi?

    A: Hammurabi was an ancient king of Babylon who promulgated one of the first written code of laws in history. The sixth king in the Amorite Dynasty, Hammurabi reigned from around 1792 B.C. until his death in 1750 B.C.
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  • What kinds of sports did people play in ancient Mesopotamia?

    Q: What kinds of sports did people play in ancient Mesopotamia?

    A: Common sports people played in ancient Mesopotamia include hunting, boxing, wrestling and polo. Games and sports were held on holidays and festival days to entertain the masses. Backgammon, the most popular board game, was played on the ground with rocks and pebbles.
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  • What are some of the ancient Mesopotamians' achievements?

    Q: What are some of the ancient Mesopotamians' achievements?

    A: One of the major inventions of the Sumerian Mesopotamians was the invention of writing. The oldest known wheel ever found by archaeologists is Mesopotamian, and they also made advancements in mathematics and astronomy.
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  • Who was Nebuchadnezzar and what did he do?

    Q: Who was Nebuchadnezzar and what did he do?

    A: King Nebuchadnezzar II took the throne in 604 B.C., and he is credited with destroying the Jewish temple built by King Solomon. Legend states that he built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, but scholars debate whether he directed the construction.
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  • What did Mesopotamians wear?

    Q: What did Mesopotamians wear?

    A: Early Mesopotamians wore primarily wool and goat hair cloth that was either felted or woven into a coarse cloth, with linen cloth for finer garments. Women initially wore long wrapped shawls and later sewn dresses or robes, while men wore some variation of loincloths or pleated wrapped skirts.
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  • What were the Sumerian social classes?

    Q: What were the Sumerian social classes?

    A: There were four Sumerian social classes: priests, the upper class, the lower class and slaves. In some cases, it was possible to identify who belonged to which class by the way they dressed.
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  • Q: How did Mesopotamia become a center of trade?

    A: Mesopotamia became a center of trade early in human history because its farmers mastered irrigation early, providing more crops than they needed to support the population. This allowed Mesopotamia to trade the surplus with neighbors. Its position between Europe and Asia also made it a prime trading hub.
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  • What are some ancient Babylonian inventions?

    Q: What are some ancient Babylonian inventions?

    A: Ancient Babylon provided a wide variety of ancient inventions that are still used today, including glazed bricks and the seeder plow. Glazed bricks were used in ancient Babylon as a way to decorate temples and other buildings. Some of the bricks that have been excavated date back to the mid-1800s B.C.
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  • Q: What are the contributions of Babylonians to civilization?

    A: Some of the major contributions of the Babylonian Empire to civilization include building the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, considered as one of the ancient seven world wonders; fashioning jewelry; using contracts for commercial transactions; developing two significant literary pieces; and establishing the Code of Hammurabi, which became the foundation for many existing laws in modern times. Babylon, serving as the capital of the empire, was a powerful city-state in the ancient region of Mesopotamia.
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  • Q: How were the social classes of Sumer organized?

    A: The social classes of ancient Sumer were organized into four main levels: the king and priests, the wealthy upper class, freemen and slaves. Class in Sumer was generally determined by a person's wealth and occupation.
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  • Q: Where can you find information on the type of government in Mesopotamia?

    A: Information on the type of government in Mesopotamia can be found on the website FactsandDetails.com. The form of government in Mesopotamia was monarchy. However, the king did not enjoy absolute power, as there was a council of nobles who made decisions regarding war and taxes.
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  • Q: What continent is Mesopotamia located in?

    A: Bronze Age Mesopotamia was located in the southwest part of Asia in what is now Iraq, Kuwait, Iran and Syria. Mesopotamia means “between two rivers,” referring to its location between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers.
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  • Q: What farming tools were used in ancient Mesopotamia?

    A: Ancient Mesopotamian farmers used basic farming tools, such as a plow and sickle. The first Mesopotamian farmers began cultivating crops around 6,000 B.C. using a simple stone plow that was pulled by oxen. The stone plow was typically attached to a shaft made of wood.
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  • What was the population of Mesopotamia?

    Q: What was the population of Mesopotamia?

    A: Mesopotamia spanned over 5,000 years with the first recorded settlement made up of about 150 people. Using the city of Uruk in 4000 BCE as an estimate, Sumer's population would have been about 0.8 to 1.5 million out of the world population of 27 million.
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  • Q: What were some of the roles played by men in Mesopotamia?

    A: Society in ancient Mesopotamia was primarily male-dominated. As one of the world's first urban centers, however, the role played by men changed from one in which they would no longer be focused strictly on tribe and family, but would instead view themselves as holding a place in a much larger and organized community. The social status of a man in Mesopotamian society was determined by his profession, with those who were trained to be scribes considered among the elites.
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  • Q: What did ancient Mesopotamians use as weapons?

    A: The most common offensive weapon used by the Mesopotamians was the bow and arrow. Other frequently used weapons included spears, javelins, maces with stone heads, battle-axes with metal blades, daggers and swords with sickle-shaped blades used for slashing. Sling shots were also used.
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  • Q: What are some laws that ancient Mesopotamia had?

    A: In ancient Mesopotamia, any son who disowned his father could be sold into slavery by his father. When fathers disowned their sons, the sons had to abandon their homes immediately and leave their possessions behind.
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  • Q: Who was Nebuchadnezzar?

    A: Nebuchadnezzar was one of the greatest kings of ancient Babylon. Many historians of the ancient world have attributed the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon to his rule. Additionally, Nebuchadnezzar occupies an important role in the biblical narrative, particularly in the Jewish scriptures.
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  • Q: What are some Sumerian accomplishments?

    A: Some of the accomplishments made by the Sumerian civilization include creating the sexagesimal system, developing a set of laws and creating the cuneiform system of writing. Sumerians have also been credited with developing the potter's wheel, although there is evidence an earlier version may have been invented in Egypt.
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