Mesopotamia

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One of the major inventions of the Sumerian Mesopotamians was the invention of writing. The oldest known wheel ever found by archaeologists is Mesopotamian, and they also made advancements in mathematics and astronomy.

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  • Who Are the Gentiles?

    Q: Who Are the Gentiles?

    A: The term "gentile" refers to someone who is not Jewish. Traditionally, this term only referred to Christians. Non-Christians from non-Western cultures were not typically labelled with this term. The Church of Latter-Day Saints, commonly known as the Mormon church, adopted this term to refer to non-Mormon people.
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  • Who Is Hammurabi?

    Q: Who Is Hammurabi?

    A: Hammurabi was an ancient king of Babylon who promulgated one of the first written code of laws in history. The sixth king in the Amorite Dynasty, Hammurabi reigned from around 1792 B.C. until his death in 1750 B.C.
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  • What Kinds of Sports Did People Play in Ancient Mesopotamia?

    Q: What Kinds of Sports Did People Play in Ancient Mesopotamia?

    A: Common sports people played in ancient Mesopotamia include hunting, boxing, wrestling and polo. Games and sports were held on holidays and festival days to entertain the masses. Backgammon, the most popular board game, was played on the ground with rocks and pebbles.
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  • What Are Some of the Ancient Mesopotamians' Achievements?

    Q: What Are Some of the Ancient Mesopotamians' Achievements?

    A: One of the major inventions of the Sumerian Mesopotamians was the invention of writing. The oldest known wheel ever found by archaeologists is Mesopotamian, and they also made advancements in mathematics and astronomy.
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  • Who Was Nebuchadnezzar and What Did He Do?

    Q: Who Was Nebuchadnezzar and What Did He Do?

    A: King Nebuchadnezzar II took the throne in 604 B.C., and he is credited with destroying the Jewish temple built by King Solomon. Legend states that he built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, but scholars debate whether he directed the construction.
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  • What Did Mesopotamians Wear?

    Q: What Did Mesopotamians Wear?

    A: Early Mesopotamians wore primarily wool and goat hair cloth that was either felted or woven into a coarse cloth, with linen cloth for finer garments. Women initially wore long wrapped shawls and later sewn dresses or robes, while men wore some variation of loincloths or pleated wrapped skirts.
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  • Q: What Was the Sumerian Religion?

    A: The Sumerian religion encompassed the beliefs, mythology and rites of the ancient civilization of Sumer in southern Mesopotamia. Practitioners of the religion worshipped a pantheon of gods and devised a creation story that they wrote on cuneiform tablets. The Sumerians might have been the first people to record their beliefs, which influenced later religions and cultures.
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  • Q: How Were the Social Classes of Sumer Organized?

    A: The social classes of ancient Sumer were organized into four main levels: the king and priests, the wealthy upper class, freemen and slaves. Class in Sumer was generally determined by a person's wealth and occupation.
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  • Q: How Does the Current Map of Mesopotamia Compare to Its Ancient Form?

    A: A 21st-century map of what was Mesopotamia shows the area divided into separate countries, including Kuwait, Iraq, Arabia, Iran, Syria and Turkey. Iraq has the largest chunk of Mesopotamia and the most land fronting the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers, which flow into the Persian Gulf. Both rivers also go through Syria and Turkey. The earliest map of Mesopotamia, dated 3500 B.C., shows the area as just one political area with various settlements named.
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  • Q: What Was the Economy of Ancient Mesopotamia?

    A: The economy of ancient Mesopotamia mainly depended on agriculture and trade. Mesopotamia is regarded as the cradle of civilization because it saw the beginning of human settlement in an organized society.
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  • Q: What Were Mayan Houses Made Of?

    A: Prehistoric Mayan homes were constructed of organic materials such as a mixture of mud and straw known as adobe, and the roofs were thatched with palm fronds and constructed with wood. Some houses included walls constructed of stacked stone, called albarradas. The Mayans spread their walls with lime to whiten them. The floors were constructed of gravel covered with soil. However, some homes did have wooden baseboards.
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  • What Facilitated Mesopotamia's Economy?

    Q: What Facilitated Mesopotamia's Economy?

    A: The economy of ancient Mesopotamia, which was scarce in local natural resources, relied heavily on trade with neighboring regions. Goods such as textiles, grain and oils were exchanged for hardwood, precious stones and wine, according to The British Museum.
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  • Q: What Did Ancient Mesopotamians Use As Weapons?

    A: The most common offensive weapon used by the Mesopotamians was the bow and arrow. Other frequently used weapons included spears, javelins, maces with stone heads, battle-axes with metal blades, daggers and swords with sickle-shaped blades used for slashing. Sling shots were also used.
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  • Q: Who Won the Battle of Marathon?

    A: The Athenian army won the Battle of Marathon, defeating a the larger army of Persian invaders. Fought in 490 B.C., this battle marked the end of the first Persian attempt to conquer Greece.
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  • Q: What Is a Cuneiform Chart?

    A: A cuneiform chart is a cross reference chart between the ancient writings and the current alphabet. The chart serves as a tool to translate the writings into contemporary language.
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  • Q: What Was a City-State in Mesopotamia?

    A: The city-states of ancient Mesopotamia were independent cities constructed around temples and entirely self-contained within mighty perimeter walls. City-states were unified with each other only by their shared use of the Sumerian language. They spent most of their time engaged in conflict over resources.
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  • Q: What Kind of Clothes Did People Wear in Ancient Mesopotamia?

    A: People in ancient Mesopotamia (3,500 BC - 539 BC) wore clothes made with animal skins and wool, originally a skirt, and later a tunic with a shawl over it. Embroidery and fringes decorated the garments. Women of high status wore veils.
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  • What Was the Culture of Mesopotamia?

    Q: What Was the Culture of Mesopotamia?

    A: Some of civilization's first cities were founded by the Sumerian people in Mesopotamia, which is located in the valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. In Mesopotamia, women were wives and mothers and took care of household duties. Men were trained from an early age for specialized jobs such as masons, musicians, builders or politicians. Big events such as weddings were celebrated with parties and festivals.
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  • Q: What Are Some Facts About the Life of King Nebuchadnezzar II?

    A: King Nebuchadnezzar II ruled Babylonia from 605 BC to his death in Babylon in 561 BC. He defeated the Egyptians and Assyrians at Carchemish and gave his father control over Syria. He took over Jerusalem and Judah and built up the city of Babylon. He married Amytis of Media, forming an alliance with the Medes, and it is said he built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon to remind her of Persia.
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  • Q: What Are Some Key Facts About the Neo-Babylonian Empire?

    A: The Neo-Babylonian Empire occupied territory that spanned the area between Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, often referred to as Mesopotamia. Following a period of Assyrian rule, the dynasty of the Neo-Babylonian period came to power when a once-Assyrian soldier, Nabopolassar, became king in the year 626 B.C. Named the Neo-Babylonian Empire because it follows two previous periods of Babylonian rulership, the empire emerged in the 7th century B.C.
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  • Q: What Occupations Were There in Ancient Mesopotamia?

    A: The primary jobs in the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia were based on the agrarian nature of the society. Most Mesopotamian citizens raised and tended crops or livestock. There were also other jobs available, such as weavers, artisans, healers, teachers, and priests or priestesses.
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