The document signed by King Charles I of England in 1628 was the Petition of Right. This bill outlined several rights for England and Wales' citizens, including only taxing citizens when an act of parliament had been passed. The king saw this bill as a challenge to his royal authority, and it acted as the basis for establishing a constitutional monarchy.
Between 1625 and 1628, Charles I attempted to raise funds for the monarchy without parliament's permission. This included customs duties, which was controversial among overseas traders. To prevent this, the Petition of Right was introduced. It prevented the monarchy from introducing taxes without parliament's permission, the government from imprisoning people against set laws and the king from using soldiers to attack private persons. It also ensured that soldiers and sailors would not be punished by martial law.
As Charles I saw the petition as a challenge to his royal authority, he introduced it in a way that meant it was not strictly law, and later tried to prevent the House of Lords from speaking on matters of state. Although the petition's legal status was questionable, it did act as a foundation for introducing a constitutional monarchy. As both the House of Commons and House of Lords felt oppressed by Charles I's measures, they came together to challenge royal authority, leading to a civil war and the eventual introduction of a constitutional monarch.