During his reign of Egypt, Pharaoh Thutmose III conquered several major cities in ancient Palestine and Syria, and his legendary plan to pursue a dangerous route across the River Euphrates led to the Mitannians' defeat, according to PBS. Thutmose's reign is considered a golden age because his successful military campaigns generated massive wealth, helping expand the Egyptian empire.
Thutmose was too young to rule when his father died, and his succession was delayed for several years when his stepmother Hatshepsut declared herself the pharaoh, according to the Thutmosis III Temple Project. Rival kingdoms, such as Qadesh and Mitanni, rose up to challenge Egypt during this seemingly vulnerable period, but Thutmose had developed a strong military background before becoming king.
Thutmose launched strategic attacks on cities in Nubia, Palestine and Israel and coastal areas of Lebanon and Syria, PBS states. He is credited with conquering more territory than any other pharaoh and controlling the largest single-monarch empire in history. One of Thutmose's most notable battles occurred against the Mitannians in Megiddo. The Egyptian army arrived by a surprise route, quickly overtaking the people, and fiercely occupied the area surrounding Megiddo until the Mitannians expended their resources and surrendered.
This forward-thinking king is also praised for his clever diplomatic strategies. Thutmose required conquered leaders to send their children to Egypt for education, solidifying ties with the empire and discouraging foreign governors from revolting, according to the Thutmosis III Temple Project. Throughout his reign, Egypt thrived by collecting tributes from acquired territories, which funded a host of memorable architectural projects, including lavish temples and gardens.