The East African country of Tanzania, which was previously known as Tanganyika, formally gained its independence from Great Britain on December 9, 1961. One year later, on December 9, 1962, Tanganyika became a republic, and on April 26, 1964 merged with the newly-independent archipelago nation of Zanzibar. On October 29, 1964, the union of the two countries was formally renamed the United Republic of Tanzania.
Prior to being designated a British mandate at the end of World War I, the area now known as Tanzania, but minus Zanzibar, was part of East German Africa. Originally under Portuguese, and then later under Omani Arab rule, Imperial Germany gained control of the area during the second half of the 19th century.