The Sumerians lived in the southern part of Mesopotamia, an area that would later become Iraq. Former Sumerian territory lies roughly between the Persian Gulf and Baghdad.
The name Mesopotamia comes from the Greek words for "land between the rivers." It was given this name because it lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia is considered the birthplace of urban civilization, and the Sumerians were the first to migrate there and build cities. Other ancient settlers of Mesopotamia include the Akkadians, Babylonians and Assyrians. Eventually, the land of ancient Mesopotamia was divided and became part of Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq.