The Sumerian civilization formed around 4000 B.C. and disappeared in 2000 B.C. The Sumerians settled in the fertile regions surrounding the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. They established communities in structured city-states, which featured layouts with temples to honor deities in city centers.Continue Reading
The Sumerian society established city-states as a more formal and permanent living structure than found in earlier societies. The Sumerian civilization consisted of a diverse socioeconomic group consisting of peasants, farmers, craftsmen and priests. Religion formed a central component of Sumerian life, and Sumerians placed religious temples in every city-state center.
Sumerians originated from the Persian Gulf region and brought traditions and skills from their homeland upon settling in the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys. Sumerians specialized in trade and possibly agriculture as well. Although living in Egypt briefly, Sumerians receive credit for important contributions to the world. They developed a complex and coherent system of writing and introduced an efficient system of record keeping and maintenance, too. Sumerians developed a social and economic structure and established timekeeping methods by breaking down time into various units, such as days, hours and months. The Sumerians eventually succumbed to attacks from other civilizations, including the Semitic peoples, which led to their ultimate demise.Learn more about Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is called the cradle of civilization because the development of agriculture, including the domestication of animals, began there 8,000 years ago, before any other civilization. The advances in the region led to the development of cities, the wheel and written language by 3,000 B.C.Full Answer >
The primary jobs in the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia were based on the agrarian nature of the society. Most Mesopotamian citizens raised and tended crops or livestock. There were also other jobs available, such as weavers, artisans, healers, teachers, and priests or priestesses.Full Answer >
Some of the accomplishments made by the Sumerian civilization include creating the sexagesimal system, developing a set of laws and creating the cuneiform system of writing. Sumerians have also been credited with developing the potter's wheel, although there is evidence an earlier version may have been invented in Egypt.Full Answer >
Some of the major contributions of the Babylonian Empire to civilization include building the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, considered as one of the ancient seven world wonders; fashioning jewelry; using contracts for commercial transactions; developing two significant literary pieces; and establishing the Code of Hammurabi, which became the foundation for many existing laws in modern times. Babylon, serving as the capital of the empire, was a powerful city-state in the ancient region of Mesopotamia.Full Answer >