The ancient Romans lived in the Roman Empire. The capital of the Roman Empire was the city of Rome, which is located in present-day Italy.
At its greatest point of expansion, around 117 C.E., the Roman Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Roman Empire encompassed approximately 5 million square kilometers when at its largest size. Its territories included land in mainland Europe, the British Isles, North Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The majority of the Roman Empire dissolved in 476 C.E., but remnants of it continued as the Byzantine Empire until it fell to the Ottoman Empire.