The Ottoman Empire, weakened for centuries prior to World War I, finally fell after being defeated by the Allied Powers. The partitioning of the Empire took place from Oct. 30, 1918, to Nov. 1, 1922, dividing up the Ottoman territories between France, Britain and the newly-created Republic of Turkey.
The League of Nations, the early-20th century precursor of the United Nations, by the Treaty of Sevres dismantled the Ottoman Empire, granting protectorate mandates to France and Britain in regions of the Middle East. Britain received the Mandates of Palestine and Mesopotamia, while France was given the Mandates of Syria and Lebanon. The Turkish War of Independence, fought from 1919 to 1923, resulted in the Treaty of Lausanne and the birth of the Turkish Republic.