Napoleon Bonaparte ruled France from 1799 to 1815. He was First Consul of France from 1799 to 1804, and he was emperor of the French people from 1804 to 1814 and again in 1815.
Napoleon gained power as First Consul when he took part in the Brumaire coup in November of 1799 and became part of a triumvirate that ruled France. He became First Consul in 1800; this was a form of dictatorship that was protected by a constitution. He fostered peace in France, and he developed the Napoleonic Code.
He was later voted as Consul for life by the public in 1802, and he became emperor two years later. Napoleon abdicated the throne and surrendered to allied nations in 1814, but he regained power in 1815. He was subsequently defeated at Waterloo that same year and was exiled for the rest of his life.