According to About.com, Malcom X began fighting against integration and for a separate black community after joining the Nation of Islam. He believed in the use of violence and carried a message of black pride in the face of what he saw as evil coming from white men.
Malcolm Little became involved with the Nation of Islam while in prison. This Muslim organization believed blacks were superior to whites and was run by Elijah Muhammad. While still in his twenties, Malcolm dropped his last name and replaced it with "X." He also became a key spokesperson for the Nation of Islam, advocating self defense against the white race. He eventually left the Nation of Islam and dramatically softened his views on whites. The Nation of Islam felt that he betrayed them, and three of the organization's members assassinated Malcolm X in 1965.