Lenin promised "peace, land and bread" to gain popular support during the struggle for political power in Russia after the czar abdicated, according to the History Channel website. In October 1917, the Bolsheviks used such promises to successfully overthrow the provisional government and gain control.Continue Reading
The phrase appealed to the basic needs of the Russian people. World War I was disastrous for Russia. By the end of 1916, around 5 million Russian troops were dead, prisoners of war or missing. The army was poorly commanded and poorly supplied, and morale was low. At home, men, horses and material were requisitioned for the war, and hunger became rampant. Due to shortages caused by the war, protests and food riots broke out in Petrograd, the capital, and in other cities. In addition, the Russian peasant population, who lived and toiled on minuscule amounts of land, saw that rich landowners with large estates continued to thrive at the expense of the poor.
Lenin addressed these concerns in his proclamation. Peace would mean an end to the war with its terrible casualties. Bread would mean relief from the ubiquitous hunger. Land would mean the prospect of self-sufficiency for the peasant population. In the end, none of these promises were kept, although Russia did withdraw from World War I through the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918, about the same time it erupted into a bloody civil war. Food continued to be scarce, and the Bolsheviks eventually confiscated all land and moved peasants onto collective farms.Learn more about Modern Europe
The Bolshevik Revolution refers to the second revolution that occurred in Russia in October 1917 led by Lenin and the Bolshevik party. The revolution took place on Oct. 25, 1917, and involved Bolshevik troops seizing key locations in the Russian capital of Petrograd from the provisional government.Full Answer >
Stalin came to power when Lenin died in 1924 by outmaneuvering his rivals to become the head of the Communist Party and then the dictator of the Soviet Union. Lenin was exiled in Switzerland in 1912 when he appointed Joseph Stalin to serve for the Bolshevik Party on the first Central Committee.Full Answer >
The major difference between Lenin and Stalin is that Stalin was willing to expand the nature and scope of the terror used to consolidate his and the party's power, while Lenin was not. Additionally, Stalin was willing to calculate even more aggressive large-scale policies concerning collectivization.Full Answer >
As a dictator of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin took Russia from an agricultural economy to an industrial economic power, and helped the Allies to defeat Nazi Germany in WWII with his Red Army. He was an active member in the Cold War, and was a violent dictator who left a legacy of death behind him.Full Answer >