Industrialization shifted the world balance of power away from China, the Ottoman Empire, the Mughal Empire and Persia to European states. The countries that formerly controlled world economy through trade became colonies of European states or economically dependent on them.
The Industrial Revolution started in England in the late 18th century, and it is still considered to be ongoing through various stages. Geographically, industrialization was transported to France and Netherlands in continental Europe, and then to other European countries, such as Northern Italy and Germany, as well as outside Europe into the United States and Japan.
Industrialization is a process by which production is concentrated in large factories where machines do most of the work, operated by hired workers. In terms of world power, industrialization meant that industrialized countries could produce more goods in less time and using less human labor. The goods included military equipment, better means of transport and other tools, which gave European powers an edge on other formerly powerful countries in the world.
China, and the Islamic empires such as the Ottoman Empire, used to control trade routes within their area of influence, which gave them power in political world. However, having failed to turn their economies into industrialized ones, they lost their hold in the world affairs. By then end of the 19th century, European powers gained control over large areas of the world, either directly as colonial powers or through economic control.