According to the BBC, on July 25, 1814, George Stephenson invented and successfully tested the first steam-powered locomotive on a railway. The locomotive's nickname was "Blucher," and it first ran on the Cillingwood Railway.
It took Stephenson 10 months to design and build the machine, with the engine constructed entirely by hand. Capable of moving at a maximum of 4 miles per hour, the locomotive hauled eight fully loaded coal wagons on its maiden run. Its success inspired the design of more steam-powered engines, and Stephenson would make 16 more in his career. In 1815, Stephenson also invented a safety lamp designed not to ignite when in the presence of volatile gases.