During the 1820s, Charles Babbage invented the difference engine, a machine that was capable of making mathematical calculations. Babbage also invented the analytical engine, which was a machine that could read punch cards to perform arithmetical calculations and had a built-in memory unit for storing numbers.
Charles Babbage also designed plans for a second difference engine, which would be an improved version of the first machine. Babbage was a member of the Royal Society and helped create the Astronomical Society in 1820. He also served as the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1828 to 1839. Babbage died on Oct. 18, 1871 in London, leaving both the analytical engine and the second difference engine unfinished.