Apartheid was instituted as a widespread systematic effort to concretize racial segregation and white supremacy in South Africa during the 20th century. It was meant to ensure white control over both the economy as well as the social environment, including how the races could interact and what jobs were available to whom.Continue Reading
Strategies for apartheid began in earnest in the 1940's, when South Africa gained independence from Britain and when ethnically Dutch white forces (Boers or Afrikaners) gained the political majority, despite the fact that they were demographically the minority. Formal apartheid laws were first launched in 1948, but were widened and made progressively more severe by the 1960s with what was ultimately called "grand apartheid."
Almost every corner of life was affected by apartheid laws. Interracial marriage was banned. Additionally, apartheid created a work environment in which many important jobs became "white-only." Black South Africans were allowed to vote in designated homelands, but were barred from any real presence within national elections, so they had absolutely no recourse to changing the system.
During apartheid, the white state granted itself extraordinary powers of police oppression and coercion, particularly in quelling demonstrations launched by black or mixed-race citizens. Extreme violence was common, as was extended imprisonment. The case of Nelson Mandela is a perfect example of the latter.
The social and economic inequality generated by apartheid was staggering, as minority whites owned 87 percent of the land, a 75 percent share of the national income, a 14-to-1 ratio of earnings and a higher minimum taxable income. Infant mortality during apartheid hovered just below 3 percent for whites, whereas it soared at 20 percent for urban blacks. Apartheid finally ended in 1994 with the establishment of a new constitution and the first instance of post colonial nonwhite rule.Learn more about Modern History
Apartheid is a form of racial segregation that has its roots in South Africa. Under this system of segregation, South Africans were divided into groups of whites and nonwhites. Apartheid was introduced in 1948 under the governance of the National Party, which was a system of government run by all-white officials.Full Answer >
Nelson Mandela, arguably one of the great leaders of the 20th century, served as president of South Africa, was a notable writer, accomplished lawyer and a civil rights activist. Mandela was born in Mveso, South Africa, on July 18, 1918. He spent his childhood in South Africa, then left to pursue an education in the United States before returning to his home country to assume the role of president in 1994.Full Answer >
Nelson Mandela was released from prison because of internal and external political pressures that encouraged the South African government to end apartheid. In an effort to gain international favor and appease opposing forces within the country, President F.W. de Klerk released all prisoners of the African National Congress, including Mandela.Full Answer >
Throughout its history, from 1948 to 1994, apartheid served to segregate black South Africans. The National Party, which instituted apartheid, chose the word for its literal meaning, "the state of being apart," in Afrikaans. While the point of the legislation was to separate non-whites from whites, the impact to black South Africans was far more severe than segregation alone.Full Answer >