The ancient Egyptians built their homes from mud bricks. They gathered mud from the banks of the Nile, mixed it with straw and formed the bricks in molds. They allowed the bricks to dry, stacked them and covered the home in plaster. The use of wood was uncommon due to the scarcity of trees.
Pheasants had simple mud-brick homes with few furnishings. Craftsmen had somewhat larger homes with several rooms and often more than one level. The wealthy built their homes with a central courtyard, and each bedroom in the home of the wealthy had its own bathroom. Royalty lived in palaces that were often a city in themselves.
The roof of most homes was flat and designed to provide shade, as rain was uncommon. An outdoor stairway led to the roof where occupants often went at night to escape the heat. While the kitchen was walled, it did not have a roof, allowing occupants to cook over open fires without trapping smoke in the home. The Egyptians also had a mud-brick oven in the kitchen for baking.
Most homes had multiple rooms that provided space for entertaining guests, sleeping and cooking. Egyptian home design included a central air shaft and small windows located across from the door to allow ventilation and natural cooling. The mud provided insulation from the sun's heat.