The Front de Liberation Nationale was a guerrilla organization formed by young Algerian Muslims, and it fought to get independence from France. When the violence escalated, 500,000 French troops were sent to crush the Muslim rebellion. After seven years, the Algerian war ended on March 18, 1962, when the French and the FLN signed a peace treaty. Algeria won its independence after 130 years of colonial French rule.
The casualties from the Algerian war included 100,000 Muslims, 10,000 French soldiers and thousands of European colonists. The European Algerians wanted integration with France, and they launched massive protests. The divide between the European Algerians and Muslims grew wider, and the country was on the brink of a civil war. Charles de Gaulle was appointed prime minister after World War II, and he granted Muslims the full rights of French citizenship. He was not for the integration of Algeria and announced that the future of Algeria should be decided by its people. Peace talks between France and the FLN began in 1961. Europeans had the option of returning to their native country, remaining foreigners in Algeria or obtaining citizenship. After the signing of the peace treaty, at least 1 million Europeans moved out of Algeria.