A cuneiform chart is a cross reference chart between the ancient writings and the current alphabet. The chart serves as a tool to translate the writings into contemporary language.
Cuneiform, meaning "wedge" in Latin, is widely regarded as the first known writing in human civilization. The first instance of this writing was during the Uruk IV period of the Sumerian civilization around 4000 BC. The writing evolved from Sumerian to a host of other languages, including Akkadian, Elamite, Hittite, Hurrian and Urartian. Cuneiform writing eventually dwindled in the first century AD, with the last known inscription written around 75 AD. It wasn't until the 19th century that cuneiform was translated to modern languages.