Great Britain received the vast majority of land east of the Mississippi River, including Canada, after the end of the French and Indian War. The city of New Orleans, however, became part of the Spanish holdings in North America.
The French and Indian War was the North American component of the much more complicated Seven Years' War, which involved a number of combatants, including the Spanish, French, British, Portuguese and Prussians, among others. The war began in North America over control of the Ohio River valley, which the French had begun to colonize. This caused friction with the British colonists, especially those in Virginia. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris, which confirmed Britain's right to these lands, French Canada and Spanish Florida.