Some facts about the Choctaw Indians include that the Choctaw Nation is divided into multiple sovereign groups and that the Choctaw were originally from the American Southeast area of Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana and Florida. Another fact is that prior to the discovery of the New World, the Choctaw nation was one of the largest civilizations in the Western Hemisphere.
The Choctaw Nation is divided into the Mississippi Choctaws and the Oklahoma Choctaws. While the Oklahoma Choctaws live on a land trust, their Mississippi counterparts live on a reservation. There is another major Choctaw group referred to as Mowa Choctaws of Alabama. Each group has its own government and legislative bodies.
The Choctaw Indians were removed from their ancestral homelands by the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. In 1830, it was the first official transfer of land under the Indian Removal Act. The act eventually lead to the Trail of Tears, where 2,500 Choctaws died due to starvation and other harsh conditions.
Prior to European contact, it is estimated that the Choctaw nation was composed of 20,000 people living in more than 100 agricultural centers. They controlled more than 23 million acres of what are now the Gulf Coast states, as of 2015. Their large size and organization protected them against attacks from neighbors.