The Berlin Wall was constructed by the Communist government of the German Democratic Republic of East Germany in 1961. The wall separated the western and eastern parts of Berlin and cut off West Berlin from the rest of Eastern Germany.
The Berlin Wall included guard towers and an area that was fitted with anti-vehicle trenches and other military defenses. The wall was constructed to prevent East Germans from escaping into the Western Bloc-affiliated West Berlin, where they could in turn escape to Western European countries. The wall remained standing between 1961 and 1989, when it opened after weeks of civil unrest. It was dismantled over a three-year period until 1992, and Germany was reunified in October 1990.