One of the major inventions of the Sumerian Mesopotamians was the invention of writing. The oldest known wheel ever found by archaeologists is Mesopotamian, and they also made advancements in mathematics and astronomy.
Because of the invention of writing, the Mesopotamians were the first people to have a written code of law. Mesopotamians used a base 60 system for math, which is how time ended up divided into 60-second minutes and 60-minute hours and why the circle is divided into 360 segments, called degrees.
The Mesopotamians also made advancements in agriculture, such as using irrigation; and in medicine, such as using as recording the results of how certain medicines affected patients to discover better treatments.