Someone might need to get a hysterectomy to treat uterine fibroids, abnormal vaginal bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, endometriosis or cancer, according to WebMD. A hysterectomy also treats severe precancerous conditions, such as dysplasia, microinvasive carcinoma of the cervix and carcinoma in situ, states MedicineNet.
The presence of uterine fibroids is the most common indication for performing a hysterectomy, reports MedicineNet. Fibroids cause pressure, pain and anemia from severe bleeding, and a hysterectomy removes the source of these growths. Physicians sometimes perform a hysterectomy when a patient experiences pelvic relaxation, a condition which causes the cervix and uterus to hang low in the vagina. A hysterectomy also resolves adenomyosis, or thickening of the uterus, states WebMD. In noncancerous cases, patients only need to have hysterectomies following the failure of more conservative therapies.
A hysterectomy treats cancer of the uterus, cervix and ovaries, notes WebMD. In cases of cancer, physicians often perform radical hysterectomies, which involve the removal of side tissues, the cervix and the uterus. In a noncancerous case, the patient may only require a subtotal hysterectomy, which is the removal of the upper portion of the uterus, or a total hysterectomy, which involves removal of both the uterus and the cervix.