Cramps in the legs, feet and toes that occur at night often have no distinct cause and are generally harmless, according to Mayo Clinic. However, some specific conditions and disorders have been linked to nighttime cramping, including artery diseases, dehydration and metabolic problems.
Nocturnal cramps in the legs, feet and toes may be caused by general muscle fatigue, according to Cleveland Clinic. If an individual sits for long periods of time, overexerts certain muscles, stands or works on concrete floors, or sits improperly, he may experience cramps at night. Certain medical conditions may also cause toe cramping at night, including alcoholism, structural disorders of the feet, Parkinson's disease, neuromuscular disorders, and dehydration or electrolyte imbalance.
Additionally, some medications may cause toe cramping at night; these include blood pressure drugs, diuretics, oral contraceptives and cholesterol-lowering drugs, explains Mayo Clinic. Dialysis can also cause cramps in the toes, feet or legs at night. Individuals who have metabolic issues, such as Addison's disease, cirrhosis, thyroid issues, kidney disease or diabetes, may also experience nighttime cramping in their toes, feet and legs as a symptom of those conditions.
Pregnancy can result in nocturnal cramping in the toes, feet and legs as well, states WebMD. Particularly in the later months of pregnancy, women may experience cramping due to decreased amounts of certain minerals, such as calcium and magnesium.