Some well-known case studies on cholelithiasis are "Epidemiology of Gallbladder Disease: Cholelithiasis and Cancer," published in 2012, and "Lifestyle and Gallstone Disease: Scope for Primary Prevention," published in 2011, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health. Cholelithiasis is the presence of one or more gallstones in the gallbladder.
"Epidemiology of Gallbladder Disease: Cholelithiasis and Cancer" is a case study that looked at modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for cholelithiasis. Non-modifiable risk factors include age, gender, ethnic background and family history. Modifiable risk factors include obesity, rapid weight loss and a sedentary lifestyle. The study focused on the rising epidemic of obesity and its relationship to the frequency of gallstones. It also studied other risk factors such as pregnancy, certain drugs, total parenteral nutrition and fasting, and the effect of diseases such as cirrhosis, Crohn's disease and hemolysis on the formation of gallstones. The study reached several conclusions, one of which was that the increasing incidence of obesity has aggravated the frequency and complications of cholelithiasis, reports NIH.
"Lifestyle and Gallstone Disease: Scope for Primary Prevention" is a case study that was performed with the objective of studying the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study. The study concluded that females have a higher incidence of gallstones, and in males, the geriatric age group is relatively more susceptible, notes NIH. Significant risk factors include abdominal obesity, inadequate physical activity and a high intake of saturated fats. The study concluded that high-risk lifestyles are a major cause of cholelithiasis and are amenable to primary prevention, states NIH.