Vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E and folate are all essential micronutrients needed during the important growth and development stage of puberty in young adults between 14 and 18 years, according to the Linus Pauling Institute. Minerals essential to puberty include calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium and zinc. Additional micronutrients needed are biotin, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin K, chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, manganese, phosphorus and selenium.
Undernutrition has the potential to stall the onset of growth spurts in adolescents, states the Linus Pauling Institute. The over-consumption of macronutrients during puberty, such as carbohydrates, fats and proteins, can lead to excessive weight gain. This is especially a problem in developed countries where young adults are consuming diets high in junk food and deficient in nutrient-rich foods like fruits and vegetables.