Although vasectomies provide a permanent method of birth control, they also have potential side effects, including chronic pain for up to a year after the procedure. Approximately 15 percent of men having vasectomies complain of severely sore testicles, according to WebMD.
WebMD indicates other risks associated with the procedure, including bleeding under the skin, infection and formation of sperm granuloma. Normally, the granuloma is treated with medication and rest, but some men require a subsequent surgery to remove the granuloma. In some rare cases, the vas deferens reattaches, causing the man to become fertile again. Men having the surgery should have their sperm count tested again at the eight- to 12-week mark to ensure it reaches zero. Until there is a confirmed zero count, the man should consider himself fertile and use alternative birth control.
Some men are concerned about getting a vasectomy due to earlier reports linking the procedure with prostate cancer and dementia. WebMD reports studies from the 1990s linking the surgery to prostate cancer; however, a later conclusive study from New Zealand refuted these studies. In 2006, members of a Northwestern University research team reported a survey linking vasectomies and dementia. However, the group studied included just 47 patients, and other researchers have been unable to replicate the results as of 2014.