Doctors most often treat uterine thickening, known as endometrial hyperplasia, with progestin, a synthetic hormone. They may administer progestin as a shot, an intrauterine device or a cream. The amount and duration of treatment varies based on the age of the patient and the extent of the hyperplasia. Endometrial hyperplasia can increase the risk of cancer in certain cases, so if a patient does not desire children, doctors may recommend a hysterectomy, explains the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
The endometrium, or uterine lining, naturally thickens during the menstrual cycle. The hormones estrogen and progesterone regulate this thickening. If the body produces excess estrogen and not enough progesterone, endometrial hyperplasia may occur. When the uterine lining thickens, its cells become crowded together. In certain cases, this crowding causes abnormal cell growth, increasing cancer risk, according to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Menopause can lead to an excess of estrogen in relation to progesterone. Other circumstances that can cause endometrial hyperplasia are the use of medications that act like estrogen, long-term use of high doses of estrogen after menopause, obesity and irregular menstruation cycles, especially those associated with infertility or polycystic ovary syndrome. General risk factors for endometrial hyperplasia include being over 35, being white, having never been pregnant, having a history of smoking, having a family history of ovarian, colon or uterine cancers, or having a personal history of certain diseases, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, gallbladder disease or thyroid disease, notes the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.