Typical medical treatments for aplastic anemia include blood transfusions, bone marrow stimulants and antibiotics for infection, reports Mayo Clinic. When patients have extremely low blood counts, doctors may perform a stem cell transplant, also known as a bone marrow transplant. For patients with autoimmune disorders that cause aplastic anemia, doctors may prescribe immunosuppressants.
Aplastic anemia is an inherited or acquired condition in which the bone marrow stops creating new blood cells, explains WebMD. Symptoms can be mild or severe depending on whether the patient is low on platelets, white blood cells, red blood cells or all three. The first step in treatment may involve observation until blood counts drop to dangerous levels. Although blood transfusions do not cure the condition, they relieve symptoms by replacing missing blood cells, according to Mayo Clinic. Patients can have multiple blood transfusions, but sometimes they need medication to purge excess iron or immunosuppressant medications to control antibodies that target transfused blood.
A patient can only receive a stem cell transplant from a matching donor, cautions Mayo Clinic. During the procedure, doctors first deplete diseased bone marrow with chemotherapy or radiation and then inject the donor's stem cells into the bloodstream to produce new blood cells. Patients must remain in the hospital for a considerable amount of time and take drugs so their bodies do not reject the donated cells.